The World Cup winner suffered the injury while training with France on Monday ahead of their World Cup Qualifiers against Kazakhstan at home on Saturday and Finland away on November 16.
He will be assessed by the Manchester United medical staff to determine the severity of the injury.
The French Football Federation said Pogba, 28, was the “victim of an injury to the quadriceps of the right thigh”.
Pogba is already unavailable for United’s Premier League game at Watford on November 20 as he completes a three-game ban following his red card against Liverpool on October 24.
France are top of their qualifying Group D with 12 points from six games and victory against Kazakhstan will secure them a place in next year’s World Cup finals in Qatar.